Self Efficacy and Aging Biases - Iron Health Physical Therapy & Cryotherapy
Joseph Rendina

"Receive Regular Health Tips from the Iron Health Team..."

Use the Form Below to Get Them All Sent to You for FREE

Self Efficacy and Aging Biases

Negative age stereotypes in regard to aging has been a heavily researched topic in the
health professions, and the conclusions are profound. Study after study has shown that
accepting negative expectations in regard to aging presents a direct threat to the cognition,
physical well-being, and resiliency to illness in older adults. What is interesting is that these
negative stereotypes and expectations are often implicit, unnoticeable, and without malintent.
A 2009 study showed that the majority of people over the age of 75 said that they have not
experienced or noticed negative age stereotypes, and those that said that they had experienced
negative stereotypes tended to not be bothered by them. Essentially, the way older people are
perceived, and how they perceive themselves can either accelerate physical decline or instead
work to prolong high levels function and quality of life.

Examples of negative age based stereotypes include, but are not limited to:

● Attributing pain or loss of function to age
○ “older adults who were asked to cite the reasons for their physical disabilities,
those who cited “old age” as the primary reason had significantly higher levels of
arthritis, heart disease and hearing loss compared to those not attributing their
disability to old age” (Williamson & Fried).

● Forgetting something and attributing it to a “senior moment”
○ Memory loss is commonly thought of as a natural part of aging. If this were the
case, there would likely be comparable levels of memory decline across cultures.
However, this does not appear to be accurate when studied. Instead memory
loss and retention could be related to cultural differences in how society treats its
elders (Levy, 2009).

● Saying or thinking “I’m too old to do…..”
○ people who had more positive ideas about their mental and physical health when
they got older actually lived longer than those who believed the negative
stereotypes about the mental and physical decline that accompanies old age.
● Being instructed not to do something exclusively due to age (ie. travel, exercise)
○ Lowers levels of self efficacy and leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy

What it comes down to is the concept of a “locus of control”. Things that are within your
control are those that you can directly influence. Anything that you cannot influence should be
outside of your focus. Therefore, Focus on what you can control. Those with larger locus of
control beliefs are more likely to adopt preventative behaviors, seek medical care, and
disbelieve negative stereotypes about the inevitability of age-related health declines.

It has been shown that rejecting negative age stereotypes and instead seeing aging as a time of
continued growth, positivity, socializing, and activity tend to show significantly better mental and
physical health outcomes compared to those who view aging with greater pessimism.
The takeaway message here is to continue doing and/or working towards the things that you
enjoy the most. Don’t let societal pressures stop you from pursuing what makes you happy,
because after all- age is just a number.

Eugen Vataman

Eugen Vataman

Eugen Vataman

Latest posts by Eugen Vataman (see all)